Deteque is delighted to announce the latest release of our Passive DNS service.  This is a simple to use, effective and fast investigation tool, available via a web browser or API.  With all the expected features of Passive DNS, including ‘Forward’ & ‘Reverse’ searches, we also have unique features including ‘Fuzzy’ search and International Domain Name (IDN) support.  Want to find out more?…

Who should consider using Passive DNS?

Security Professionals, Malware Researchers, Brand Protection Specialists, Penetration Testers, among others.

Why use Passive DNS?

Deteque’s Passive DNS speeds up cyber research and investigations, providing you with increased visibility across the internet. By simply entering a single domain name or IP address, in addition to specific search parameters, you can quickly pivot to new areas of potential ‘badness,’ viewing real-time & historic Passive DNS data. 

Watch out for our’ How to Use’ videos over the coming weeks to get a deeper understanding of how you can utilize this tool.

Features of Deteque’s Passive DNS

As with most Passive DNS tools, it is possible to run the following basic searches:

Forward search – on rrname queries (e.g.,

Reverse search – on rrdata queries (e.g., 123.456.7.89) 

There are also a multitude of filters you can utilize to fine tune your search.  In addition to the basic date and ‘Record Type’ filters, e.g., ‘A’ or ‘CNAME,’ we have several filters that are unique to Deteque:  Word Search, Left Match, Fuzzy Search & IDN Support. Here’s a brief overview of some of the filters you can apply when running a query:

Deteque's Passive DNS User Interface for a forward searchExact match – Search for an exact match in the database of your requested query.

Right match – Perform a “right match” searching for the records which have the requested string on the rightmost side. (example: *

Left Match – Perform a “left match” searching for the records which have the requested string on the leftmost side. (example:*)

Word Match – Search for a single string in the target field

Last & First Seen Date – the dates you want the query to return results to and from. 

Fuzzy search – Search for domains where one or multiple characters have been altered:  Select the number of characters you want to be different from the original domain to reveal a host of spoofed domains.

IDN:  Search for internationalized domain names once their “confusable” characters have been replaced with their normalized homoglyphs. e.g. “” is shown as “apþ“.  For more information on this new function, click here.

Where does the data come from?

Deteque leverages Passive DNS data from Spamhaus, who have been providing threat intelligence to the industry for over 20 years.  Spamhaus collect the data from trusted third parties across the globe.  For a more in-depth look at Passive DNS data, click here.

How much does it cost?

If you have low usage requirements or are wanting to trial the product, you can get 200 queries per month for free (no credit card details requested).  Should you require a more substantial plan, we won’t tie you into a contract; instead, we give you the flexibility to change your plan monthly to meet your ever-changing business requirements.  Details of the plans are outlined here.



Click here to find out more, or register for your free 30-day plan here.

DNS Firewall Threat Feeds are delivered in the industry standard Response Policy Zones (RPZ) format. These zones are called ‘policy’ for a good reason, i.e., they allow you to choose and implement the protection policies that you want. When choosing DNS Firewall Threat Feeds its key to ensure you pick the right ones based on the relevant level of protection your business requires, otherwise you could be making things more tricky than they need to be.

Bacon and eggs anyone?

Have you been to a buffet breakfast recently? Did you overeat? Be honest…. A little or a lot? It is so tempting to fill the plate with fruit and yogurt, followed by bacon & eggs, finishing up with a couple of pancakes before finally squeezing in a pastry.

When we’ve paid for something we want to get our monies worth. It’s tempting to do the same with DNS Firewall Threat Feeds. The subscription has been paid so it makes sense to utilize all the feeds at their highest level of security, right? Surely the more intelligence data you utilize, the safer your network and the happier your end-users will be?

Sadly this is not the case. You need to be strategic in your choice of feeds based on the following:

Scales showing Risk your business can afford to take V commercial requirements of your business

Risk your business can afford to take V commercial requirements of your business

Take a look at the tales of two businesses below to understand what we mean:

The network carrier
An internet service provider (ISP), let’s call it KommuneeK8, uses DNS Firewall Threat Feeds. They have chosen to utilize every piece of data available in their response policy zones, i.e., all standard feeds and all hacked feeds.

KommuneeK8 has a domestic customer called Susie. Susie has an expectation (and rightly so) that she will always be able to access her favorite independent shopping website called Spinning Tunes, to purchase rare vinyl records.

Meanwhile, in another corner of planet earth, the shared hosting environment which Spinning Tunes’ website is hosted on has been compromised and is being used as part of a botnet command & control (C&C). As a result, the internet protocol (IP) address, on which Spinning Tunes’ domain resides has been listed on Deteque’s “BotnetCC IPS Hacked ” feed.

The consequences of the listing are that Susie is unable to access the Spinning Tune’s website and has subsequently missed out on purchasing the rare Beatles Abbey Road 1987 UK LP pressed on red vinyl. Susie is not happy. So she calls her ISP to ‘loudly’ express her dissatisfaction at the fact.

While KommuneeK8 had the best intentions of providing a safe browsing environment for their end-user, in this case, the IP listing of a shared resource is going to cause multiple false positives. Ultimately the ISP implemented security policies and chose DNS Firewall Threat Feeds that were too restrictive for their commercial needs.

Now let’s visit a healthcare provider…

The Healthcare provider

Frank works in the finance team of a large healthcare provider. He also wants to visit Spinning Tunes website, and like Susie can’t access it because his company is running DNS Firewall Threat Feeds.

Frank gets pretty frustrated and calls his IT help desk who remind Frank that he is using company property, on a company network, in company time to make a personal purchase! They advise him that healthcare has more breaches than any other sector, and the highest costs associated with stolen data records, therefore they have chosen to follow a low-risk strategy when it comes to cybersecurity.

In this scenario, when you weigh up the risk to the company against service to the end-user, it’s perfectly acceptable for the healthcare provider to be utilizing the feeds that are likely to block all domains & IPs that have any potential risk associated with them. The healthcare provider’s IT security team understand that more sites than perhaps necessary may be blocked, but consider this to be a better outcome than their network being compromised.

Choosing the right DNS Firewall Threat Feeds for your business

As a security or network professional, you have the unenviable task of balancing business needs against the expectations of your end users. As this hypothetical example has shown, different businesses will have different needs and approaches.

In fact, different users within the same business present different risk profiles and may warrant different policies. Be clear about your business’ security profile. Get appropriate sign-off. Then communicate the selected approach to customer-facing support teams and, more importantly, end users.

Trial DNS Firewall for Free

DNS Firewall – A beginner’s guide

Discover DNS Firewall Threat Feeds

Deteque is delighted to be part of the RSA® Conference at the Moscone Center in San Francisco, 4th-8th March 2019.

The RSA® Conference 2019

This is the place to be for the latest in cybersecurity data, innovation and thought leadership. Bringing together cybersecurity’s brightest minds, the industry’s newest developments are discussed in addition to looking predictions for the forthcoming year.

From keynotes presented by experts to numerous sessions covering everything under the cybersecurity sun, there’s no better place to refresh your insights and connect with peers from around the globe.

Meet with the Deteque team

Head to the UK pavilion to discuss your security issues and find out what we can do to assist with those challenges.  We’ll be showcasing our newly released Web Query Service, which leverages up to the minute threat intelligence from Spamhaus to protect forms and log-in pages on your websites, from force or fraud attacks.

Complimentary Expo Plus Pass

Email us via the contact form below, or get in touch with your reseller for a special code to receive a FREE Expo Plus Pass.



Last year, Cybercriminals were exceptionally busy registering domain names which were used to host a botnet command & control (C&C).  The team at Spamhaus, whose threat intelligence powers Deteque’s services, observed a large 52% increase compared to 2017! Here’s everything you need to know when it comes to the most abused top-level domains (TLDs) in 2018, along with a steer on how to protect yourself from a worrying trend concerning decentralized TLDs (dTLDs).

The importance of domain names

Cybercriminals prefer to use a domain name registered exclusively to host a botnet C&C.  A dedicated domain name allows them to fire up a new virtual private server (VPS), load the botnet C&C kit, and immediately be back in contact with their botnet after their (former) hosting provider shuts down their botnet C&C server. Not having to change the configuration of each infected computer (bot) on the botnet is a significant advantage.

Number of botnet C&C domain names registered in 2018

Last year, compared to 2017, Spamhaus Malware Labs saw a 100% increase in the number of the domain names registered and set up by cybercriminals for the sole purpose of hosting a botnet C&C:

2017: 50,000 domains

2018: 69,961 domains*

Top-level domains – a brief overview

Before we get into the detail of which top-level domains were abused the most by botnet C&Cs in 2018 let’s take a look at some of the different types of top-level domains:

  • Generic TLDs (gTLDs)– can be used by anyone
  • Country code TLDs (ccTLDs)– some have restricted use within a particular country or region; however, others are licensed for general use which provides the same functionality of gTLDs
  • Decentralized TLDs (dTLDs) –independent top-level domains that are not under the control of ICANN.

Most abused top-level domains in 2018

There were some interesting (and concerning) developments in this area, perhaps most notably was the rise of domain names registered to ‘.bit,’ a decentralized top-level domain (dTLD). Domain names with this type of TLD create additional issues when it comes to blocking malicious traffic and taking down these bad operators.

Top abused TLDs

List of most abused top-level domains in 2018 by botnet C&C traffic

Most abused top-level domains by botnet C&C traffic in 2018

Palau ‘.pw’ was the most abused TLD: The listings associated with ‘.pw’ rose by 56% in 2018, which was an additional 4,835 botnet C&Cs connected with this domain from the previous year.

Russia ‘.ru’ had a reduced number of domain registrations for botnet C&Cs:  We noted a small decrease from 1,370 domain listings in 2017 to 1,183 in 2018. This saw ‘.ru’ ccTLD move out of the top ten rankings, down to #17.

Historically cybercriminals heavily abused ‘.ru’ & ‘.su’ ccTLDs, however, over recent years their operator has implemented measures which are having positive effects in reducing the amount of abuse across these 2 TLDs.

‘.tk,’ ‘.ml,’ ‘.ga,’ ‘.gg’ and ‘.cf’ made their first appearances in the Top 20: Originally ccTLDS;  Freenom now operate them, and they are considered to be gTLDs. As the name implies ‘Freenom’ provide domain names for free.

Given this business model, it’s not surprising that there has been a massive increase in abusive activity associated with them: Cybercriminals realize that their nefarious actions are likely to lead to their domain name being shut down, therefore prefer to obtain them for free rather than pay for them.

dTLD ‘.bit’ had an upsurge in listings: This dTLD didn’t make it into the ‘Top 20’ however we observed 108 domain names hosting botnet C&Cs with the dTLD ‘.bit.’ dTLDs provide criminals with advantages over other TLDs and consequently pose additional threats to users; therefore we feel it is necessary to highlight them:

  • These domain names cannot be taken down or suspended when being used for malicious purposes, because there is no governing body associated with a dTLD.
  • Researching malicious activity becomes more challenging as domain name registrations within dTLDs are usually entirely anonymous, with registrant information not being required.
  • dTLDs bypass DNS Firewalls/Response Policy Zones (RPZ) that many ISPs and businesses use to protect their customers/users from cyber threats.

They by-pass DNS Firewalls because dTLD domains are not resolvable through common DNS.  Instead, they are resolved through nameservers that support ‘.bit,’ such as OpenNIC.

How can you protect against botnet C&C traffic on dTLD’s?

How Border Gateway Protocol Feeds protect your network

How Border Gateway Protocol Feeds protect your network

Border Gateway Protocol data feeds provide an added layer of protection.  These block connections to IPs involved in the most dangerous cybercrime and DDoS attacks via your edge router.

By taking just a few minutes to configure your edge router to peer with a Deteque BGP router and a null route, you can provide your network with up-to-date protection against botnets, alongside phishing and external attacks on your organization’s servers.

IT security has always required a multi-faceted approach, and with new threats continually coming to the fore, such as those posed by botnet C&C traffic registered to a dTLD, it is vital to continue to add layers of additional security.

 If you’d like to read the full Botnet Threat Report click here or fill in a contact form to get in touch with a member of our team who can discuss BGP feeds with you further.

*N.B. These numbers exclude hijacked domain names; domains owned by non-cybercriminals that were used without permission, and domains on ‘free sub-domain’ provider services.


Spamhaus is the engine that powers Deteque’s services with its carefully researched threat intelligence.  In 2018 the researchers at Spamhaus blocked over 10,000 botnet command & control (C&C).  That is the highest number on record.   But what was the malware associated with each botnet C&C?  Here’s your chance to find out, and discover an automated way to protect your network and users against these threats at the DNS level.

The malware that came and went in 2018

As always, the threats from malware were highly dynamic in 2018.  While some trends such as remote access tools (RATs) continued to gather momentum, additional ones started to rear their heads, such as CoinMiners.

Credential Stealers: As in 2017, credential stealers were still accounting for the most significant amount of botnet C&C traffic; however there were changes as to which were top of the leader board.

Loki malware associated with malware in 2018‘Pony’ held the #1 spot for two years, however in 2018 ‘Loki’ took pole position, having more than doubled the number of unique botnet C&Cs associated with it.

Remote Access Tools (RATs): This type of malware saw a significant increase in 2018, in particular, a Java-based RAT, called JBifrost (aka Adwind).JBifrost malware associated with botnet C&C in 2018

Back in 2017, we reported that JBifrost was starting to flood the botnet landscape, however, in 2018 we witnessed an explosion in the number of unique botnet C&C listings associated with it. The sheer volume of these listings has placed JBifrost at #2 on our leader board.

ebanking Trojans associated with botnet C&C in 2018Ransomware & e-banking Trojans: Botnet C&Cs associated with both types of malware dropped significantly in 2018.

CoinMiners: Making their first appearance in the Top 20 list last year were CoinMiners. These are malicious pieces of software that silently mine cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin and Monero, without the consent or approval of the user. In 2018, we identified 83 botnet C&Cs associated with CoinMiners.

Mining pools: In addition to CoinMiner botnet C&C listings, in 2018 we also issued 156 SBL listings for 111 cryptocurrency mining pools that were used by the CoinMiners. Some of these cryptocurrency mining pools appeared to be rogue; however, the majority were legitimate pools that were being abused by CoinMiners.

The Spamhaus Project has tried to approach the responsible hosting providers, asking them to have the offending user(s) of the mining pool suspended, to stop the fraudulent activity. Unfortunately, this was not always possible because some cryptocurrencies, such as Monero, are entirely anonymous, unlike Bitcoin. 

An extra layer of security against malware

Charts showing Malware blocked by DNS Firewall in 2018The increased threat from CoinMiners is apparent when you view the statistics from users of Deteque’s DNS Firewall Threat Feeds.   These threat feeds are consumed at the DNS level, allowing security teams to automatically block users (blocks/redirects), and IoT devices’ from accessing bad sites.

In April 2018 only 21% of blocks/redirects were for CoinMiner/Cryptoblocker traffic, whereas at the end of last year, in December 2018, CoinMiner redirects accounted for 66% of all blocked/redirected traffic.

It is evident that the botnet C&C landscape underwent some significant changes in 2018.  With ‘lean teams’ and ‘lean budgets’ security professionals are caught between a rock and a hard place in attempting to keep on top of the ever-changing threats.  Therefore, it’s crucial to identify solutions that are quick to install, ‘set & forget,’ and leverage the best threat intelligence in the industry.  In doing so, security & IT teams are enabled to focus on other urgent matters, confident in the knowledge that teams of professional security researchers and investigators are identifying the threats on their behalf.

Download the full Botnet Threat Report

We have observed a significant increase in the amount of botnet activity across the past few months.  Watch the video below to find out what’s driving this.

Cyber attacks across the healthcare sector are rampant and show no signs of abating. Security and network teams within this industry have the odds stacked against them; proving that it’s crucial to build a multi-faceted security strategy that is smart, both in regards to spend and resources.

Healthcare under attack

When it comes to cyber attacks healthcare is the highest targeted sector.  In 2017 there were over 300 breaches.  That is over 29 times the number of breaches reported across the hospitality industry.

There are many reasons why healthcare is such an attractive target to cybercriminals, including:

    1. table showing healthcare had 328 breaches in 2017

      Data published by in ‘Top Industries Affected by Data Leaks in 2017’

      Patient data is valuable data – the information contained in a patient’s files include personally identifiable information (PII) including names, date of births and social security numbers, as well as a whole host of additional information that has a high value on the dark web.

    2. Open to extortion – where data has a high worth the incentive for extortion increases.
    3. An increasing attack surface – the ever-expanding areas healthcare networks have to support is only going to increase. From internet based consulting to remote workers and patients requiring online access to records, not to mention the proliferation of the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), the attack surface of the healthcare sector is growing exponentially.
    4. Vulnerable infrastructure – historically there has been a lack of investment in cybersecurity within this industry, both concerning human resources and infrastructure investment. Historically, expenditure has averaged 50% compared to that of other sectors. ‘Lean’ teams coupled with a rapidly changing cyber threat landscape significantly increases an organization’s vulnerability to threats.

The consequences of a cyber attack

When a provider within healthcare is subject to an IT security breach the ramifications go far beyond the initial internal IT ‘mop-up’:

The potential risk to life – on multiple levels there is a risk to human life, from operations having to be canceled to no access to medical records for emergency treatment, not forgetting the number of IoMT devices which can be compromised. Take a glance at the numerous articles on the web concerning a pacemaker’s vulnerability to hacking, and you’ll soon understand the risk IoMT devices can present.

Brand & reputation – once a data breach becomes public the media feeding frenzy commences.  One only has to look to the National Health Service in the UK in 2017 which was effectively brought to a standstill by the WannaCry ransomware. The media coverage was global and prolonged.

In countries where an individual can choose their healthcare provider it’s hardly likely they will trust an organization with their life if that organization can’t be trusted with their personal data.

Financial – loss of productivity, cost of remediation, missing pay for performance deadlines and heavy financial fines from governing bodies and authorities such as HIPAA, not to mention penalties under GDPR, all contribute to weighty post-breach costs.

The costs of Healthcare data breaches far exceed other industries. Following a security breach, The University of Washington Medicine incurred a $750,000 HIPAA fine.  In Ponemon’s 2017 Data Breach report it was estimated that a data breach in the Healthcare industry costs an organization $380 per record, in comparison to a global average of $141!  For the NHS in the UK, the cost of the fall-out from WannaCry has nearly reached £100m.

Continually changing threats

Taking all the above into consideration, it is clear that security teams within the Healthcare sector have to be smart with their IT security spending.  With reduced resources and funds it’s almost impossible to keep abreast of the latest security threats.

Ransomware attacks declined by 32% in Q1 2018 from Q4 2017, while coin mining (cryptojacking/cryptomining) increased by 1,189%.  With such a quickly shifting threat landscape maintaining expertise across all areas is challenging for even large teams, let alone smaller ones.

Healthcare security teams have to look to solutions that automatically mitigate risk, protecting patient data and devices while freeing up precious manpower resources to focus on other issues, without a hefty price tag.

Going to HIMSS 2019?  Connect with the Deteque team on booth 400-36 and see how you can increase your network security for less.

Join the Deteque team at DNS-OARC 39th CENTR Technical Workshop, in Amsterdam, on 13-14 October 2018.

DNS-OARC logoFocused on DNS operations and research, the DNS-OARC event provides attendees with the opportunity to get a deeper understanding of the security and stability of the internet’s DNS infrastructure.

Connect with us to discuss how you can increase the security of your DNS infrastructure, through DNS Firewall Threat Feeds and Passive DNS.
Register here.

We look forward to connecting with attendees of ISF’s 29th Annual World Congress, in Las Vegas, on  27-30 October 2018.

Information Security logo Information Security Forum’s flagship event provides an opportunity for those attending to discuss and find solutions to current security challenges.  Leaning on both the expertise of security industry specialists from around the world and the experience of peers, there is a wealth of information available from best practices to the latest thought leadership.

Deteque’s resellers Security Zones will be on-hand to listen to the security challenges you are facing, and provide you with insights into how you can automatically prevent bad domain connections at a DNS level, alongside demonstrating a simple to use Passive DNS tool that provides a wealth of information for IT security teams, research teams and brand protection specialists. 

Register for ISF’s 29th Annual World Congress here.

With the ever increasing demands on IT, security and networking teams, tools that reduce workloads, which don’t cost the earth, are always welcome.  One such tool is DNS Firewall. For those not familiar with how DNS Firewall works, and the benefits it provides, read on…

An introduction to DNS Firewall

At its most basic level, similar to traditional firewalls, DNS Firewall blocks/redirects end-users from accessing malicious sites.  The main difference between the two is that DNS Firewall is applied at a different layer and phase, namely threat intelligence data feeds are applied to the domain name system (DNS).  This circumvents the loss of visibility that is making traditional firewalls less effective due to the significant increases in end to end encrypted traffic.

But why should you use it?

In addition to protecting your users against identity theft, installation of malware and data exfiltration, there are other reasons to use this type of firewall as part of your multi-layered security, including:

Educating your end users: Following an attempt to connect to a bad domain you can enlighten your end-user as to the danger they have just avoided e.g. potentially connecting to a phishing site.  This can either be done via a landing page which they are redirected to, or by reaching out to them directly; turning a bad decision into a positive teaching opportunity.

Freeing up your busy team: Utilizing this kind of firewall automatically mitigates some of the serious issues that may arise on your network as a result of it being compromised.  This provides your teams with additional time to focus on resolving other pressing network and security issues.

Gaining insight to be proactive: It provides you with more visibility into compromised users or clients on your network.  This enables you to take immediate action without the time lag of either being notified by a third party, or discovering the issue at a later date, be that days, weeks or months after the attack.

It’s easy to apply & simple to maintain: Once this firewall has been applied to the DNS all the clients on your network, including IoT devices, are protected from accessing malicious sites.  This minimizes deployment resources.  Meanwhile the data feeds, against which potential connections are checked, are continuously update.  This removes the need for upgrades and updates.

Brand protection: For ‘trusted’ brands online security breaches can have a huge impact on business.  One only has to look to British Airways in the UK and their significant data breach to understand the consequences.  It is vital to have multiple layers of security to keep company networks and users ‘safe’.

Lower cyber risk insurance costs:  Insurance (and its associated costs) probably don’t fall under your department’s responsibilities or budget.  However, it’s highly likely that someone in your organization will be pleased to discover that implementing DNS Firewall can reduce your cyber risk insurance costs.

How can DNS Firewall be implemented?

There are three ways to implement DNS Firewall. It is worth noting that all three use ‘threat intelligence data feeds’ to identify bad domains, however there are differing ways in how you can access/utilize these feeds:

Data and synchronisingOn-premises open source software:  Threat intelligence data feeds are transferred via AXFR/IXFR to your DNS resolver as ‘zone’ files. Originally, DNS Firewall was designed to be an open and translatable standard, with it’s initial home being BIND.  Now other DNS servers such as PowerDNS, Knot, and Unbound also provide support for using DNS Firewall threat feeds.

On-premises appliance: An internal solution/application, located within your network, working as a management system for your DNS’s security infrastructure which utilizes threat intelligence data feeds. Depending on the supplier you may, or may not, have the flexibility to choose your preferred data feed supplier.

Cloud with data flowing in and outCloud: Service providers with their own DNS resolvers which are protected by DNS Firewall with threat intelligence data feeds, and are accessed, like a managed service, by customers.

How DNS Firewall works

Picture of how DNS firewall work

Let’s take a deeper dive into how DNS Firewall works:

Standard DNS Resolvers: When an end-user attempts to go to a website/domain, the resolver will query a root server, then a top-level domain server, and finally the server of the site, which will complete the resolution of the request by the end-user.  The client’s request to access the site will take place regardless of whether the site is malicious or not.

DNS Resolver with DNS Firewall: During the resolution process “zones”, which consist of sets of threat intelligence data, are queried.  The requested domain is analyzed for potential security risks against the data sets, and if a match is returned the request is blocked or redirected.

Take a look at the examples below to see what end-users may potentially see if they tried to connect to a phishing site in each of the following situations:

No DNS Firewall: phishing site accessed


text saying "This site can't be reached".

DNS Firewall enabled: phishing site blocked


advisory notice that user attempted to access a phishing site

DNS Firewall enabled: phishing site blocked and advice provided for user

Where the DNS Firewall is enabled the end-user who has attempted to access the phishing site has been prevented from doing so, and consequently protected from the potential harm that could lead to.  Moreover, because the mitigation has occurred at the DNS level there has been no need for the end-user to install an additional program or update software on their workstation.

What next?

DNS Firewall has the potential to free up teams to accomplish other tasks and build a secure proactive, not reactive, network experience for everyone within your organization.

Now you know how DNS Firewall works it’s time to look at what considerations you need to be making when implementing it.

10 Questions for your DNS Firewall Provider

Discover DNS Firewall Threat Feeds

Trial DNS Firewall for Free